AECT Association for Educational Communications and Technology
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  1. What is the history of the field?
  2. What is the knowledge base?
  3. What is the history of AECT's partnership with NCATE?
  4. How are the 2000 performance-based standards different from the previous guidelines?
  5. Is my program an ECIT program?
  6. Is my program initial or advanced?
  7. What are the initial standards?
  8. What are the advanced standards?
  9. What are the components of a Program Report?
  10. What are the critical aspects of an Assessment Plan?
  11. What are some types of data to include?
  12. Why should we be interested in National Recognition?
  13. What are common weaknesses in Program Reports?
  14. How is AECT responsible for ECIT program review?
  15. How does the program review process work once I submit a program report?
  16. How do I know whether my state has a review partnership with NCATE?
  17. What are the expectations for program reviewers?
  18. Who are my contacts at AECT?
  19. Which programs currently have National Recognition?
  20. What do I do if I have a school library media specialist program?
8. What are the Advanced Standards?

These standards are concerned with candidate performances, curriculum, faculty, specialized support services, and evaluation procedures required for the accreditation of advanced programs in the area of educational communications and instructional technologies (ECIT). Advanced ECIT programs are defined as those which represent additional study in the field. A graduate program which advances knowledge and skills beyond the entry level for the profession constitutes an advanced ECIT program. It is expected that advanced candidates are able to demonstrate the competencies outlined in the initial program. The intended audience for the standards are those faculty members and administrators who have the responsibility for, and control of, such programs. These standards are intended to accompany and amplify NCATE's Standards, Procedures, and Policies for the Accreditation of Professional Education Units, and to address Standard 1 of the NCATE standards.

INTRODUCTION


These standards for accrediting advanced programs in educational communications and instructional technologies (ECIT) are built upon the same definitions and domains as the standards for initial programs. Definitions of educational technology and a discussion of the philosophical basis for ECIT programs are provided in Chapter I of this document which should be reviewed prior to developing a program report in response to the advanced standards in this chapter.

Details of content and organization for advanced programs are not specified in the standards. All advanced programs should provide for at least minimal competencies within each domain of the instructional technology knowledge base. Advanced programs should also indicate the domains and subdomains that are germane to their program and the roles filled by their graduates. The intent of the standards is to provide the maximum degree of flexibility to institutions as they develop soundly conceived and defined programs.

The advanced standards are built upon the assumption that basic media support for teacher training is available to support advanced programs in educational communications and instructional technologies. These advanced standards require evidence of the specialized facilities and services necessary to support the development of competencies required of graduates from the program. The advanced standards also concentrate on the candidate’s preparation in the research, application of theory, and theory development within the field.

Curricula and candidate performances for the advanced preparation of personnel in the field of educational communications and instructional technologies (ECIT) should be grounded in the knowledge base of the field. The domains of the field include design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation. Programs will vary in their concentration on each of the domains.

The complete domains and subdomains are listed below:

Design  
  Instructional Systems Design
  Message Design
  Instructional Strategies
  Learner Characteristics

Development  
  Print Technologies
  Audiovisual Technologies
  Computer-Based Technologies
  Integrated Technologies

Utilization  
  Media Utilization
  Diffusion of Innovations
  Implementation and Institutionalization
  Policies and Regulations

Management  
  Project Management
  Resource Management
  Delivery System Management
  Information Management

Evaluation  
  Problem Analysis
  Criterion-Referenced Measurement
  Formative Evaluation
  Summative Evaluation


Within these five domains and twenty subdomains, the program may be composed of those competencies most appropriate to the intended roles of the candidates.

 

Standard 1: DESIGN

Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to design conditions for learning by applying principles, theories, and research associated with instructional systems design, message design, instructional strategies, and learner characteristics.

Supporting Explanations:

Design is the process of specifying conditions for learning” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 30). The domain of design includes four subdomains of theory and practice: Instructional Systems Design (ISD), Message Design, Instructional Strategies, and Learner Characteristics.

1.1 Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
Instructional Systems Design (ISD) is an organized procedure that includes the steps of analyzing, designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating instruction’”(Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 31). Within the application of this definition, ‘design’ is interpreted at both a macro- and micro-level in that it describes the systems approach and is a step within the systems approach. The importance of process, as opposed to product, is emphasized in ISD.

1.1.1 Analyzing: process of defining what is to be learned and the context in which it is to be learned.
1.1.2 Designing: process of specifying how it is to be learned.
1.1.3 Developing: process of authoring and producing the instructional materials.
1.1.4 Implementing: actually using the materials and strategies in context.
1.1.5 Evaluating: process of determining the adequacy of the instruction.

1.2 Message Design
" Message design involves planning for the manipulation of the physical form of the message” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 31). Message design is embedded within learning theories (cognitive, psychomotor, behavioral, perceptual, affective, constructivist) in the application of known principles of attention, perception, and retention which are intended to communicate with the learner. This subdomain is specific to both the medium selected and the learning task.

1.3 Instructional Strategies
Instructional strategies are specifications for selecting and sequencing events and activities within a lesson” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 31). In practice, instructional strategies interact with learning situations. The results of these interactions are often described by instructional models. The appropriate selection of instructional strategies and instructional models depends upon the learning situation (including learner characteristics), the nature of the content, and the type of learner objective.

1.4 Learner Characteristics
Learner characteristics are those facets of the learner’s experiential background that impact the effectiveness of a learning process” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 32). Learner characteristics impact specific components of instruction during the selection and implementation of instructional strategies. For example, motivation research influences the selection and implementation of instructional strategies based upon identified learner characteristics. Learner characteristics interact with instructional strategies, the learning situation, and the nature of the content.

Performances Indicative of the Design Standard

Select candidate performances which are applicable to your program. The following indicators are examples of performances related to the design standard. You may wish to identify additional performance indicators related to your program.

1.1 Instructional Systems Design

1.1.a Apply a variety of instructional systems design models.

1.1.b Identify theories from which a variety of ID models are derived and the consequent implications.

1.1.c Demonstrate proficiency in the prescription, implementation, and evaluation of treatments to maximize learning/performance outcomes in a variety of contexts.

1.1.1 Analyzing

1.1.1.a Utilize research methodologies appropriate to the investigation of instructional tasks and content.

1.1.1.b Identify the theories and historical background of analysis as a component of instructional design and instructional systems development.

1.1.2 Designing

1.1.2.a Demonstrate in-depth synthesis and evaluation of the theoretical constructs and research methodologies related to instructional design as applied in multiple contexts.

1.1.2.b Utilize principles and procedures of instructional design in a variety of contexts and systems.

1.1.2.c Recognize and articulate current trends in the development of theory and emerging practice related to instructional design.

1.1.3 Developing

1.1.3.a Demonstrate personal skill development with two or more: computer authoring application, video tool, or electronic communication application (not telephone).

1.1.3.b Utilize the research, theoretical, and practitioner foundations of the field in the development of instructional materials.

1.1.3.c Utilize the research, theoretical, and practitioner foundations of the field in the selection of media for instructional settings.

1.1.4 Implementing

1.1.4.a Conduct basic and applied research related to technology integration and implementation.

1.1.4.b Utilize the research, theoretical, and practitioner foundations of the field in the implementation of instructional plans.

1.1.5 Evaluating

1.1.5.a Demonstrate congruency among goals/objectives, instructional strategies, and assessment measures.

1.1.5.b Conduct basic and applied research in the evaluation of emergent learner assessments.

1.1.5.c Articulate the relationships within the discipline between theory, research, and practice as well as the inter-relationships between people, processes, and devices.

1.2 Message Design

1.2.a Conduct basic and applied research related to message design, which includes multiple media.

1.3 Instructional Strategies

1.3.a Identify multiple instructional strategy models and demonstrate appropriate contextualized application within practice and field experiences.

1.3.b Demonstrate appropriate uses of multiple instructional strategies for complex, interactive environments.

1.4 Learner Characteristics

1.4.a Analyze the effectiveness of macro- and micro-level design efforts by considering the interactions of learner characteristics, instructional strategies, nature of the content, and the learning situation.

1.4.b Demonstrate in-depth synthesis and evaluation of the theoretical constructs and contemporary research related to the identification and importance of learner characteristics.



Standard 2: DEVELOPMENT

Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to develop instructional materials and experiences by applying principles, theories, and research related to print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies.

Supporting Explanation:

“Development is the process of translating the design specifications into physical form” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 35). The domain of development includes four subdomains : Print Technologies, Audiovisual Technologies, Computer-Based Technologies, and Integrated Technologies. Development is tied to other areas of theory, research, design, evaluation, utilization, and management.

2.1 Print Technologies
Print technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials, such as books and static visual materials, primarily through mechanical or photographic printing processes” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 37). Print technologies include verbal text materials and visual materials; namely, text, graphic and photographic representation and reproduction. Print and visual materials provide a foundation for the development and utilization of the majority of other instructional materials.

2.2 Audiovisual Technologies
Audiovisual technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials by using mechanical devices or electronic machines to present auditory and visual messages” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 38). Audiovisual technologies are generally linear in nature, represent real and abstract ideas, and allow for learner interactivity dependent on teacher application.

2.3 Computer-Based Technologies
Computer-based technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials using microprocessor-based resources” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 39). Computer-based technologies represent electronically stored information in the form of digital data. Examples include computer-based instruction(CBI), computer-assisted instruction (CAI), computer-managed instruction (CMI), telecommunications, electronic communications, and global resource/reference access.

2.4 Integrated Technologies
Integrated technologies are ways to produce and deliver materials which encompass several forms of media under the control of a computer” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 40). Integrated technologies are typically hypermedia environments which allow for: (a) various levels of learner control, (b) high levels of interactivity, and (c) the creation of integrated audio, video, and graphic environments. Examples include hypermedia authoring and telecommunications tools such as electronic mail and the World Wide Web.

Performances Indicative of the Development Standard

Select candidate performances which are applicable to your program. The following indicators are examples of performances related to the development standard. You may wish to identify additional performance indicators related to your program.

2.0.1 Collaborate with a development team to apply principles of design specifications to produce technological products.

2.0.2 Use theory, research, and evaluation to select appropriate technological tools for developing effective instructional products and processes.

2.0.3 Compare, analyze, critique, and evaluate commercially produced products to determine how learning theories, instructional design specifications, production principles, and teaching strategies are embedded within the product.

2.0.4 Solve problems of design specifications for embedding learning theories and effective teaching strategies in the development of instructional or professional products.

2.0.5 Evaluate the effective use of design specifications in products used in a variety of learning or training environments.

2.0.6 Create instructional or professional products using technology resources such as CD-ROMs, laser discs, Web pages, digital technologies, and other emerging technology resources.

2.0.7 Apply principles of learning theories and research to create effective learning environments.



Standard 3: UTILIZATION


Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources for learning by applying principles, theories, and research related to media utilization, diffusion, implementations, and policy-making.

Supporting Explanations

“Utilization is the act of using processes and resources for learning” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 46). This domain involves matching learners with specific materials and activities, preparing learners for interacting with those materials, providing guidance during engagement, providing assessment of the results, and incorporating this usage into the continuing procedures of the organization.

3.1 Media Utilization
Media utilization is the systematic use of resources for learning” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 46). Utilization is the decision-making process of implementation based on instructional design specifications.

3.2 Diffusion of Innovations
Diffusion of innovations is the process of communicating through planned strategies for the purpose of gaining adoption” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 46). With an ultimate goal of bringing about change, the process includes stages such as awareness, interest, trial, and adoption.

3.3 Implementation and Institutionalization
Implementation is using instructional materials or strategies in real (not simulated) settings. Institutionalization is the continuing, routine use of the instructional innovation in the structure and culture of an organization” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p.47). The purpose of implementation is to facilitate appropriate use of the innovation by individuals in the organization. The goal of institutionalization is to integrate the innovation within the structure and behavior of the organization.

3.4 Policies and Regulations
Policies and regulations are the rules and actions of society (or its surrogates) that affect the diffusion and use of Instructional Technology” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 47). This includes such areas as web-based instruction, instructional and community television, copyright law, standards for equipment and programs, use policies, and the creation of a system which supports the effective and ethical utilization of instructional technology products and processes.

Performances Indicative of the Utilization Standard

Select candidate performances which are applicable to your program. The following indicators are examples of performances related to the utilization standard. You may wish to identify additional performance indicators related to your program.

3.1 Media Utilization

3.1.1 Apply research and theory in the selection and utilization of technologies for learning.

3.2 Diffusion of Innovations

3.2.1 Apply research and theory in the implementation of strategies for the diffusion, adoption, and dissemination of innovations in learning communities.

3.3 Implementation and Institutionalization

3.3.3 Identify and implement strategies to engage stakeholders in the process of diffusion, adoption, and dissemination.

3.3.5 Evaluate the effects of diffusion, adoption, and dissemination.

3.4 Policies and Regulations

3.4.4 Implement effective policies related to the utilization, application, and integration of instructional technologies in a variety of contexts.

 

Standard 4: MANAGEMENT

Candidates demonstrate knowledge, skills, and dispositions to plan, organize, coordinate, and supervise instructional technology by applying principles, theories and research related to project, resource, delivery system, and information management.

Supporting Explanations:

Management involves controlling Instructional Technology through planning, organizing, coordinating, and supervising” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 49). The domain of management includes four subdomains of theory and practice: Project Management, Resource Management, Delivery System Management, and Information Management. Within each of these subdomains there is a common set of tasks to be accomplished: organization must be assured, personnel hired and supervised, funds planned and accounted for, facilities developed and maintained, and short- and long-term goals established. A manager is a leader who motivates, directs, coaches, supports, monitors performance, delegates, and communicates.

4.1 Project Management
Project management involves planning, monitoring, and controlling instructional design and development projects” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 50). Project managers negotiate, budget, install information monitoring systems, and evaluate progress and improvement.

4.2 Resource Management
Resource management involves planning, monitoring, and controlling resource support systems and services” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 51). This includes documentation of cost effectiveness and justification of effectiveness or efficiency for learning as well as the resources of personnel, budget, supplies, time, facilities, and instructional resources.

4.3 Delivery System Management
Delivery system management involves planning, monitoring and controlling ‘the method by which distribution of instructional materials is organized’ . . . [It is] a combination of medium and method of usage that is employed to present instructional information to a learner” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 51). This includes attention to hardware and software requirements, technical support for the users and developers, and process issues such as guidelines for designers, instructors, and ECIT support personnel.

4.4 Information Management
Information management involves planning, monitoring, and controlling the storage, transfer, or processing of information in order to provide resources for learning” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 51). Information is available in many formats and candidates must be able to access and utilize a variety of information sources for their professional benefit and the benefit of their future learners.Performances Indicative of the Management Standard

Select candidate performances which are applicable to your program. The following indicators are examples of performances related to the management standard. You may wish to identify additional performance indicators related to your program.

4.0.1 Implement and evaluate a micro-level technology plan in an appropriate setting.

4.1.1 Implement and evaluate project management techniques using current research.

4.2.1 Implement and evaluate resource management techniques using current research.

4.3.1 Implement and evaluate delivery system management techniques using current research.

4.4.1 Implement and evaluate information management techniques using current research.

 

Standard 5: EVALUATION

Candidates demonstrate knowledge, skills, and dispositions to evaluate the adequacy of instruction and learning by applying principles, theories, and research related to problem analysis, criterion-referenced measurement, formative and summative evaluation, and long-range planning.

Supporting Explanations:

Evaluation is the process of determining the adequacy of instruction and learning” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 54). ECIT candidates demonstrate their understanding of the domain of evaluation through a variety of activities including problem analysis, criterion-referenced measurement, formative evaluation, and summative evaluation.

5.1 Problem Analysis
Problem analysis involves determining the nature and parameters of the problem by using information-gathering and decision-making strategies” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 56). ECIT candidates exhibit technology competencies defined in the knowledge base. Candidates collect, analyze, and interpret data to modify and improve instruction and ECIT projects.

5.2 Criterion-Referenced Measurement
Criterion-referenced measurement involves techniques for determining learner mastery of pre-specified content” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 56). ECIT candidates utilize criterion-referenced performance indicators in the assessment of instruction and ECIT projects.

5.3 Formative and Summative Evaluation
Formative evaluation involves gathering information on adequacy and using this information as a basis for further development. Summative evaluation involves gathering information on adequacy and using this information to make decisions about utilization” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 57). ECIT candidates integrate formative and summative evaluation strategies and analyses into the development and modification of ECIT projects and programs.

5.4 Long-Range Planning
Long-range planning that focuses on the organization as a whole is strategic planning....Long-range is usually defined as a future period of about three to five years or longer. During strategic planning, managers are trying to decide in the present what must be done to ensure organizational success in the future.” (Certo, et al, 1990, p. 168). ECIT candidates demonstrate formal efforts to address the future of this highly dynamic field including the systematic review and implementation of current ECIT developments and innovations.

Performances Indicative of the Evaluation Standard

Select candidate performances which are applicable to your program. The following indicators are examples of performances related to the evaluation standard. You may wish to identify additional performance indicators related to your program.

5.0.1 Exhibit a knowledge of and display skill in the analysis of current educational communications and instructional technology (ECIT) research on evaluation in order to evaluate ECIT projects and programs.

5.0.2 Demonstrate skill in the conception, design, implementation, and reporting of original ECIT research on evaluation in order to evaluate ECIT projects and programs.

5.0.3 Apply theories underlying the five ECIT domains to instructional projects.

5.0.4 Identify and apply strategies to develop and implement a long-range plan for an ECIT program or project.

Candidates and candidate performances for the initial and advanced preparation of personnel in the field of educational communications and instructional technologies (ECIT) should be grounded in the knowledge base of the field. The performance-based standards provided in Chapter II (Initial) and Chapter III (Advanced) are directly aligned with the five domains and twenty sub-domains presented in Definitions and Domains of the Field (Seels & Richey, 1994). Each standard includes a supporting explanation and sample candidate performances indicative of the specific standard.

The program review rubrics are meant to provide a framework within which the Program Reviewer evaluates the program based on an analysis and judgment of the evidence presented in the Program Report. The evaluation form provides a summary of the Program Reviewer's evaluation and a summative recommendation for National Recognition or No National Recognition. Program Reviewers will consider both the Context Statement and the Performance Evidence (see Chapter IV) when completing the rubrics. The rubrics are also intended to serve as a guide for programs to consider what level of performance they might expect in each of the Standards. The rubrics are not intended to be used as a scoring system by programs or by AECT Program Reviewers. For additional information, see the section titled, "Instructions for Reviewers."

The program review rubrics include general descriptions of what is expected at each of three levels of candidate performance: "Target" (exceptional performance in this standard, beyond what one would typically expect); "Acceptable" (entirely satisfactory performance from well-prepared candidates); and "Unacceptable" (inadequate performance from ECIT candidates, well below what one would expect). General descriptions are different for the Initial and Advanced program rubrics so as to align directly with the performance-based standards detailed in Chapters II and III.

ADVANCED PROGRAM RUBRIC

STANDARD UNACCEPTABLE ACCEPTABLE TARGET
1. Design Candidates are unable to design effective conditions for learning. They lack adequate knowledge in the principles, theories, and research associated with instructional systems design, message design, instructional strategies, and learner characteristics. Candidates' knowledge, skills, and dispositions to design conditions for learning are well-grounded in principles, theories, and research associated with instructional systems design, message design, instructional strategies, and learner characteristics. Candidates' knowledge, skills, and dispositions to design conditions for learning are fully grounded in principles, theories, and research associated with instructional systems design, message design, instructional strategies, and learner characteristics.
Reviewer's Comments
2. Development Candidates demonstrate simplistic knowledge, skills, and dispositions in the development of instructional materials and experiences. Their products do not reflect basic principles, theories, and research related to print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies. Candidates demonstrate essential knowledge, skills, and dispositions in the development of instructional materials and experiences by applying basic principles, theories, and research related to print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies. Candidates demonstrate complex, integrated knowledge, skills, and dispositions in the development of instructional materials and experiences by applying principles, theories, and research related to print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies.
Reviewer's Comments
3. Utilization Candidates lack basic knowledge of principles, theories, and research related to media utilization, diffusion, implementation, and policy-making. Candidates show evidence that they can use processes and resources for learning that are grounded in principles, theories, and research related to media utilization, implementation, diffusion, and policy-making. Candidates routinely use processes and resources for learning that are grounded in principles, theories, and research related to media utilization, implementation, diffusion, and policy-making.

Reviewer's Comments

 

4. Management Candidates are unable to plan, organize, coordinate, and supervise instructional technology. They lack essential knowledge of principles, theories, and research related to project, resource, delivery system, and information management. Candidates demonstrate baseline abilities to plan, organize, coordinate, and supervise instructional technology through the application of principles, theories, and research to project, resource, delivery system, and information management. Candidates demonstrate extensive abilities to plan, organize, coordinate, and supervise instructional technology through the application of principles, theories, and research to project, resource, delivery system, and information management.
Reviewer's Comments
5. Evaluation Candidates are unable to effectively evaluate instruction and learning. They lack basic knowledge of principles, theories, and research related to problem analysis, criterion-referenced measurement, formative and summative evaluation, and long-range planning. Candidates demonstrate essential knowledge and skill in the evaluation of instruction and learning by applying principles, theories, and research related to problem analysis, criterion-referenced measurement, formative and summative evaluation, and long-range planning. Candidates demonstrate extensive knowledge and skill in the evaluation of instruction and learning by applying principles, theories, and research related to problem analysis, criterion-referenced measurement, formative and summative evaluation, and long-range planning.
Reviewer's Comments
 

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Return to Table of Contents


Unless specified otherwise, all material on this site is 2001 by AECT
Association for Educational Communications and Technology

1800 N. Stonelake Dr. Suite 2
Bloomington, IN • 47408

877-677-AECT
812-335-7675

Contact:
AECT Webmaster

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